• Advanced funicular technology

      Hofmann, Gottfried; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper traces evolution of funicular technology from 1804 to date. Funicular operating systems are compared. Component design considered on individual basis. State of the art summary considers safety, automation, ergonomics, acoustics, capacity and cost. Illustrative drawings, graphs and photographs. (CFD).
    • Amusement transportation by wire rope

      Doman, D. Mark; International Organization for Transportation by Rope. North American Continental Section
      There are significant parallels and commonalities between the ski and amusement industries and passenger transportation by wire rope goes back at least as far in amusement settings as it does in skiing. Every major amusement park has a "Sky Ride" made by one of the same suppliers that supply the ski industry, but the amusement industry uses wire rope to solve passenger transportation problems in some unique and interesting ways. The original way that the amusement industry used to turn large passenger carrying structures at slow speeds from high speed output shafts was with wire ropes. The obvious example is the Ferris Wheel but early drive mechanisms for many common amusement rides used wire ropes. "Pinch wheel" drives, like the drives used to propel detachable carriers in terminal conveyors, have replaced the old wire rope drives in the amusement industry, but new rides use wire ropes to do new and remarkable things. The tension resulting from the mass per length of roller lift chains limits conventional roller coaster heights to approximately two hundred feet. Using wire ropes however, roller coaster manufacturers have been able to build coasters more than 450 feet tall and to launch their trains at over 125 mph. One solution uses an approach similar to a jig-back tram where what would be the tram car latches to a roller coaster train and hauls it up the 300 feet lift hill at detachable lift speeds using 800 hp. Another approach accumulates energy in a bank of hydraulic accumulators and releases it to accelerate a 15,000 pound train to 125 mph in two seconds - enough energy for the train to summit a 450 foot hill. This approach uses rotation resistant rope and water cooling.
    • Application of laser vibrometers for dynamic characterisation of ropeways components

      Evangelisti, P. S.; Rinaldi, M.; Rossi, G. L.; Santolini, C.; Tomasini, E. P.; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      In this work applications of laser Doppler vibrometers to typical problems of mechanics and possible applications in the field of ropeway transportation are discussed. Benefits have been found because of the new possibility opened up to perform, at considerable distance and without any contact, motion, and vibration measurements on components during plant operation and also on moving parts (rope, bull wheels, rotating shaft, etc.) for prototype optimization, maintenance or plant working condition monitoring with possible improvements in reliability and safety. Some case studies are presented: the application of a laser scanning vibrometer for measuring tangential movements of a rope on a sheave assembly on the chair lift ropeline, for measuring of sheave vibrations in axial direction, and for measuring flexural vibration of a portal line support.
    • Balancing trail with lift design

      Von Allmen, Beat; Salzmann, Stefan; International Organization for Transportation by Rope. North American Continental Section
      This paper reviews different methods for estimating trail capacities for winer sports and summer use of lift served Alpine areas. It offers some rules of thumb for synchronizing uphill and downhill capacity with the aim of retaining high recreation quality. Three different points of view are represented: 1) Justification of seasonal or peak demand for lift capacity, 2) The waiting line concept, 3) Preservation of a comfortable carrying capacity of trails at traffic bottlenecks. More recent research conducted in Austria on the subject is reviewed to analyze the complex skier and snowboarder traffic relationship. Expectations have changed and goals for matching these capacities are the subject of discussion. It appears that with better grooming and snowmaking, trails can endure higher traffic; however, high-speed and high-capacity lifts raise the traffic flow. Some useful guidelines are summarized to dimension trails to fit lift capacity. During summer, trail capacities are normally less significant. It is possible to estimate the hiking, biking and other trail carrying capacity based on the social space, using group size, distance or departure interval and pace. By including the simpler summer traffic in the discussion, the variables of comfort and choice are explained in a general form.
    • Benefits from using 7 strand ropes for hauling and hauling-carrying ropes

      Clerici, Franco; International Organization for Transportation by Rope. North American Continental Section
      The key point of my argument is to offer a better and innovative solution to the ropes used on cableways, in order to reduce the 2 major inconveniences that occur with the use of conventional 6 strand wire ropes: noise and vibrations. As we can easily understand conventional 6-strand ropes do not have a smooth profile; this induces large movements of the roller supports, causing noise and vibrations. Additionally, splicing a 6-strand rope implies large tucks, which can interfere with the vehicles suspension grips. to solve these problems Redaelli has developed and manufactured a new-patented wire rope construction with 7 strands. The outcomes are that the profile of the rope is much smoother, preventing large movements of the roller support, and therefore reducing significantly noise and vibration, and the splice results in smaller tucks, as each strand is smaller when compared to 6 strand ropes. By increasing the outside surface, 7-strand ropes also reduce local pressure preventing roller wear and shoot down maintenance. This paper describes all the important factors to take into account in order to manufacture this rope properly. Design criteria--how to design a rope for specific installation; Fibre ("fiber") core dimensioning--Why is it so important for this wire rope construction? Rope prestretching--resulting into the lowest elongation values; Tail wrapping--innovative material for a better splice; Experimental results--see the real deal.
    • Birth of the cable car, The

      Okreglak, Les M.; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper covers technical considerations involved in design and operation of the historical San Francisco cable car system. Challenges of the modern system are included. Illustrative drawings and photographs. (CFD).
    • Bob movement and vehicle acceleration running a support or compression tower

      Jaussaud, Pierre; Martin, Nadine; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper evaluates vehicle acceleration, physical features, comparison models and like considerations for line sheave assemblies on break-over and hold-down towers of ropeways. Illustrative drawings and test data. Conclusions are drawn. (CFD).
    • Building an icon: constructing the new Jackson Hole tramway

      Dorau, Stephen W.; Melichar, C.; International Organization for Transportation by Rope. North American Continental Section
      The iconic Jackson Hole Tramway was replaced in 2008 with great success after nine years of analysis and planning that determined that the system, built in 1968, had reached the end of its life. The construction methods and schedule were both aggressive and creative. The experiences gained through the planning and construction of the new tramway are noteworthy and can help to guide the planning of future projects. The challenges associated with the Jackson Hole terrain, location and weather were compounded by the system length, market conditions, and the techniques and specific examples of challenges and how they were overcome, the lessons learned on the remarkdable project may streamline future aerial ropeway projects. Specific examples of successes and challenges will be dissected. The challenges will be examined for their causes and their corrective actions. Additionally, possible alternative methods that would have allowed these issues to have been avoided will be discussed. This paper will conclude with an evaluation of the construction process as a whole in which the project schedule and philosophies will be discussed.
    • Cable cranes are still up to date

      Graziano, Giorgio; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper describes characteristics of a construction cableway as opposed to a ropeway. Cableways for dam construction are emphasized; design and operating characteristics are covered. Manufacturer, Poma Italia s.p.a. (CFD).
    • Cable grips with plastic padding

      Corazza, Ernst; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper details the concept and testing to establish validity for plastic padding in grips to minimize high lateral forces on wire rope in the contact area. The grips on a reversible tramway in Austria were used for study. Test results are documented and conclusions drawn. Engineering drawings. (CFD).
    • CABLE Liner - the APM system of the future, The

      Klimmer, Alexander; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      This paper describes a new APM system, known as the CABLE Liner, and the test track installation in Wolfurt, Austria, where the CABLE Liner has now been running under test conditions for over a year. The CABLE Liner is detachable funicular railway with vehicles drawn by a continuously moving cable loop integrated into the guideway. Based on the concept of "permanent movement", this system is designed to handle passenger volumes of up to 5,000 PPH in each direction over distances of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles), with little or no waiting time.
    • Cable propelled systems in urban environments

      Neumann, Edward S.; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper evaluates cable propelled people mover systems operating in urban environments. Continuous vs. reversible systems, guideway vs. suspension, operating speeds and ergonomics are evaluated. Conclusions are drawn. (CFD).
    • Calculation of the dynamic loads acting upon a rope grip as it passes around the bull wheel on a fixed grip quad chair lift

      Luger, Peter; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      In the case of fixed grip chair lifts, the carriers pass around the bull wheels at full rope speed. The introduction of loading carpets made it possible to further increase rope speeds with a view to shortening trip times. When passengers attempt to leave the lift at bull wheel exits, the relatively high rope speed leads to a risk of the passenger failing to vacate the chair in time and thus travelling around the bull wheel. If this happens, the centripetal acceleration in particular causes excessive wear on the grip, hanger arm, and carrier. The aim of this paper was to develop a method, and subsequently a computer program, which would make it possible to calculate the dynamic loads on the rope grip and hanger arm when the carriers travel around the bull wheel. The simulation program developed was verified by recalculating an existing installation, the 4-CLF quad chair lift Saloberkopf/Schrocken/Vorarlberg supplied by the Austrian manufacturer Doppelmayr of Wolfurt.
    • Calculation of the track width of ropeways

      Oplatka, Gabor; Volmer, M.; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper defines problem, describes the modeling, discusses the theory and explains calculations to determine track width of ropeways. Particular coverage for spans of the Funitel in Montana. Formulae; illustrative drawings and photographs. (CFD).
    • Cognitions from the Schilthorn incident regarding track rope maintenance

      Baumann, Max; International Organization for Transportation by Rope. North American Continental Section
      The wire rope as, both a safety component and an intensely used wear-part influences the ropeway system safety for all phases of the service life.It's great advantages are its redundancy (interacting of a great number of stranded wires that form the rope) and its ability to call attention long before a dangerous condition may arise, thanks to physically recognizable criteria such as corrosion, wire breakage. An officially called systematic check-up - after the Schilthorn incident - at cableways of identical design unfortunately brought to light an unpleasant scene regarding wire rope maintenance practice: a very dangerous neglect of the appropriate visual inspection and maintenance had sneakingly spread out. This presentation shall address enhanced methodologies, with a focus on track ropes, for the prevention of rope damaging in the design phase, during installation and in operation. Due rope preparation (cleaning), finding and assessing of impending or existing damages, skilful restoration, and repair of existing damages which are essential for the substantiation and evidence of the safety of a ropeway system and which are indispensable premises to declare and ensure safety to operate at any time. The ropeway design engineers shall be reminded of material and design prerequisites for the prevention of wire rope damage and for the ease of the subsequent rope maintenance. And the procedures of wire rope work (e.g. stringing, rigging, relocating) shall be questioned and optimized continuously, with regard to damage prevention.
    • Collection, treatment & publication of professional statistics: above all, a tool at the service of the operating companies themselves

      Pettex, Jean-Louis; Hasenauer, Josef; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper discusses economics of, particularly, Mann tarn transportation and tourist accommodation facilities. Proposal is to facilitate collection of operation costs and related economics for the mutual benefit of all. (CFD).
    • Combined numerical and experimental analysis of the mechanical and thermal stress distribution in a rubber-aluminum roll

      Dorfmann, A.; Pabst, O.; Beha, R.; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Structural components made of rubber play an important role in engineering processes. In spite of the widespread and necessary use of rubber, in engineering, a general working knowledge of rubber properties and technology is rather uncommon. A typical application in ropeway engineering is the rubber-aluminum roller subjected to very high thermal and stress gradients during its service life. An attempt is made to describe chemical constitution and compounding of natural rubber as well as the mechanical properties of the elastomer. Material model characterization is summarized and hypereleastic models are reviewed. Important factors influencing energy conversion into heat are introduced and an attempt is made to analyze thermal pressure generated during oscillating loads. It is shown that the thermal load case is important in determining the stress distribution in the roller components and must be included during the design process.
    • Common law of the European community and its influence on running cable cars, The

      Thony, Walther; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper discusses European common law, regulations, economic considerations and the EURO as they influence ropeway manufacturers, installation and operation. (CFD).
    • Copper applications: a case study; two miles of copper grounding saves big money, improves safety on New Mexico ski lift: lightning, ground loop currents place sensitive control system at risk

      Woodbury, Stephanie; International Organization for Transportation by Rope. North American Continental Section; Copper Development Association
      The importance of proper electical site protection, including grounding theory, testing and design, different methods for earth grounding.
    • Detachable shuttle system for urban transport

      Sehnal, Walter; International Organization for the Study of Transportation by Rope; Internationaler Seilbahnkongress 1999: San Francisco, Calif.
      Congress paper describes and details advantages of a rope-drawn, detachable shuttle system for urban transport. System operations are described. (CFD).