Improving self-pierce rivet performance through processing and alloy development
|Findley, Kip Owen
|Van Hall, Stephen N.
|Includes bibliographical references.
|Spot welding has been used to join steel sheet material in the past during automotive manufacturing. The increasing use of aluminum and mixed materials to achieve continually increasing fuel economy standards requires mechanical joining methods to provide adequate impact performance. One such mechanical joining process is self-pierce riveting (SPR). Self-pierce riveting has grown in popularity in recent years due to fast cycle times, high static strength and fatigue performance as well as the ability to join many different sheet material combinations. Self-pierce rivet utilization has become limited due to the material properties of the rivet in two main areas: the joining of high-strength sheet material and joining of multiple sheet material combinations using a single rivet geometry, referred to as commonization. Two specific case studies have been developed to assess the failures that occur and evaluate potential solutions: joining of press-hardened steel (PHS) to Al6111 and improved commonization ability using a two layer aluminum joint that is currently joined with a specialized rivet. Riveting trials have been performed on each of the two case studies using cold forged rivets produced from 10B37 steel that has been heat-treated through a quench and temper process to a range of hardness levels to evaluate the failures that occur within the rivet. The failures occur with two different modes: buckling of the rivet at hardness values below 550 HV when joining PHS and Al6111 and fractures that occur in the rivet tail at hardness values above 550 HV during joining in each of the case studies under evaluation. The fractures have been attributed to a high degree of hoop strain that forms when the rivets are flared beyond the design specifications. A method to replicate the rivet flaring procedure under laboratory conditions has been developed by flaring the rivets through various strain paths to induce a hoop strain and the resultant fractures. The flaring method shows the ability to replicate the types of fractures that were observed during joining attempts while monitoring applied force, crosshead displacement and strain at the point of fracture at the rivet tail using digital image correlation. Alternative alloys including 4130, 4340 and 5160 were evaluated alongside 10B37 for improved performance after quenching and tempering, austempering and after being intentionally decarburized to varying degrees. The heat-treatments were evaluated through microscopy, fractography, rivet flaring and joining attempts for each case study and alloy under investigation. All of the alternative alloys showed no significant performance gains after being quenched and tempered or austempered. However, hoop strain to failure during flaring was increased between 2-4x after the rivets had been intentionally decarburized. The intentionally decarburized rivets were evaluated through joining trials and provided successful joining for each of the case studies under investigation using 10B37 rivets. Rivets produced from 4340 and 5160 also showed instances of success during joining attempts. The Cockroft and Latham failure criterion was evaluated in regards to rivet flaring through the development of finite element simulations using Abaqus. The Cockroft and Latham failure criterion was able to successfully predict the location of riveting fractures through multiple strain paths, rivet geometries and microstructures. Cockroft and Latham values from tensile tests of 10B37 wire led to an underestimate of the strain to failure when compared to the rivet flaring process for quenched and tempered rivets but was very similar to the strain predicted for rivets that had been intentionally decarburized.
|Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes Library
|2017 - Mines Theses & Dissertations
|Copyright of the original work is retained by the author.
|finite element analysis
|Improving self-pierce rivet performance through processing and alloy development
|Speer, J. G.
|Van Tyne, C. J.
|Stebner, Aaron P.
|Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
|Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
|Colorado School of Mines