Recent Submissions

  • Developing hydrogen and carbon capture and storage projects in the state of Colorado

    Cheng Siew, Chiang; Littlefield, Anna; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-12-09)
    Over the past two years, both the hydrogen and carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) industries have gained momentum in the US. Project development in these industries has been rapidly accelerating with the growing financial incentives from policymakers for the commercial deployment of these projects. The signing of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, in November of 2021 marked the US Department of Energy's largest single investment in carbon management, along with significant investments funding clean hydrogen development.
  • Climate change: toward a more resilient Africa

    Saghir, Jamal; Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-11-29)
    The impacts of the invasion of Ukraine on agricultural exports and fertilizers, the food price hikes, the inflationary pressures, the unsustainable debt levels for many countries, and the possible global economic recession are severely impacting African economies and communities. In addition, the climate is changing, and Africa needs to adapt. It must adapt to rising temperatures, more extreme storms, and floods, rising sea levels, more intense heatwaves, and longer and more severe droughts. Yet though the risks are great, so also are the opportunities that successful adaptation can bring.
  • A new paradigm for managing mineral trade routes in Africa

    Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-11-16)
    The African Copper belt is a major supplier of key minerals such as copper, nickel, and cobalt to the world economy. Extracting and transporting these minerals to market will be essential to the success of the energy transition as demand for solar and wind energy, and battery metals soar exponentially over the next three decades. In contrast, the dismal state of road infrastructure for transporting the minerals from mine to port creates a major impediment to the commercial competitiveness of miners in the region and threatens economic rents accruable to host countries and communities. This commentary describes a new paradigm that could radically transform the design of solutions to ease logistics problems in the region.
  • Africa's energy transition & critical minerals

    McKennie, Caitlin; Hassan, Al Hassan; Abanga Abugnaba, Mama Nissi; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-11-03)
    As the energy crisis perseveres and governments around the world attempt to meet net zero emission timelines, there are many eyes on Africa's natural resource supply. Africa is resource rich. The continent is endowed with significant hydrocarbon reserves and critical minerals required for low-carbon technologies. As political and environmental developments around the world seek to decarbonize supply chains, pivoting investments over time towards critical minerals in Africa can help and bridge the gap between emerging/developing economies and energy security.
  • The keys to the future oil and gas production facility: the Colorado story

    Crompton, James; Lindsey, Wyatt; Cheng Siew, Chiang; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-26)
    With growing concern about climate change, the need for a diversified energy portfolio for energy security and the expectation for an energy transition away from fossil fuels to non-carbon energy solutions, such as renewables, all signals suggest that the energy transition has already begun. States like Colorado have been rewriting regulations to include stricter rules on oil and gas production. While the energy industry is transitioning due to market forces, public policies, and technological advances, fossil fuels are not yet out of the picture for the total energy supply of the future.
  • Oil & gas industry being a good neighbor: getting a license to operate through proactive community engagement

    Lindsey, Wyatt; Crompton, James; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-27)
    In the DJ Basin in Colorado, there has been a collision of industry activities and community development due to the "mini-boom" of O&G development, stemming from hydraulic fracking of the Niobrara Formation and the growing population along the Front Range. This led to a decrease in public support for industry permits starting around 2013 and an increase in operational notification requirements (Turkewitz 2018 & MacKenzie 2016). By 2013, the Front Range communities were pushing for more local control and enacting local bans of operations on O&G development to address distributive injustice and differing vulnerabilities (Turkewitz 2018 & McKenzie). 2019 saw the passage of SB-181 which made a big difference in the permitting process for O&G to emphasize public health, safety, and welfare. Over the next two-year period, the state experienced a significant restructuring of its O&G regulations and regulatory bodies (Jaffe 2022).
  • On equal footing: the impact of FERC Order 841 on grid battery installations

    Lange, Ian; Oke, Anuja; McKennie, Caitlin; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-26)
    New technologies don't often "fit" within market designs as well as the incumbent technologies. As a result, subtle changes in market rules can have large impacts on new technology adoption, and their associated supply chains. This research measures the impact on grid battery installations, and the resulting lithium demand – both generated by the June 2020 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 841.
  • The future of oil and gas production in urban and suburban environments: "Is Colorado an example of where the North American crude oil and natural gas industry might be headed?"

    Lindsey, Wyatt; Jordan, William Owen; Crompton, James; Cheng Siew, Chiang; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-25)
    There has and is much discussion about the future of fossil fuels, specifically the oil and gas industry. With growing concern on climate change, the need for a diversified energy portfolio, incorporation of clean energies into energy production, and the expectation for an energy transition away from fossil fuels to non-carbon energy solutions, such as renewables, signifies that the energy transition has already begun. While the energy industry is transitioning due to market forces, public policies, and technological advances, fossil fuels are not yet forgotten in the total energy supply of the future.
  • Novel steel industry flaring capability at Payne Institute

    Elvidge, Christopher; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Taber, Kelly; Bazilian, Morgan D.; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-25)
    The Payne Institute Earth Observation Group (EOG) at Colorado School of Mines has developed a new method for detecting flaring at industrial sites with the capability to produce worldwide data on steel mills.
  • Aligning value with communities: conceptualizing a 'Carbon Steward' federal tax credit

    Ross, Ashleigh; Littlefield, Anna; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-20)
    A significant and growing risk to wide-spread deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects in the US exists not in the technical space, but rather with social license to operate. The central challenge is how to achieve the principles of environmental justice for communities when the only incentives go directly to industry, and stakeholders must negotiate for fair compensation. Here we propose that a direct to community and landowner tax credit, the 'Carbon Steward Tax Credit,' may be the solution that enables true alignment between projects and communities. Providing communities value independent of but aligned with the project or developer can promote much stronger relationships for near- and long-term deployment of CCS.
  • Supporting a just energy transition through alternative funding strategies for African hydrocarbon developments

    Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-10-19)
    Africa contains significant amounts of hydrocarbon reserves that contribute extensively to state revenue and facilitate social and economic development. The growth prospects for these African countries are however under threat as international financial institutions reduce their funding for hydrocarbon developments in response to global warming and its adverse effects. Given that Africa contributes less than 5 percent of global carbon emissions and has widespread energy poverty, the curtailment of funding for hydrocarbon development will create an inequitable burden on African economic development.
  • Monitoring of Portovaya gas flares

    Elvidge, Christopher; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Taber, Kelly; Bazilian, Morgan D.; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-09-12)
    Using a proprietary Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Nightfire clustering algorithm, Payne Institute scientists are monitoring two flares from Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) production facilities owned by Gazprom near Portovaya, Russia.
  • Closing the energy poverty gap in Africa using landfill gas

    Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-09-08)
    Energy poverty is widespread in African countries and power generation capacity has continued to lag population and economic growth. The prospects for adding generation capacity are currently diminished as global financial institutions reduce lending for carbon-based energy developments in response to the adverse effects of climate change. Concurrently, large population centers in Africa continue to generate waste that can be utilized for power generation on competitive terms using landfill gas. Power generation from landfills also has the benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with each landfill and displacing gasoline and diesel demand from use in transportation and backup power generation. Despite these attributes, the uptake of landfill gas power across Africa has been negligible. This paper highlights economic feasibility assessments of African landfill power generation projects from literature and develops options for policymakers to boost landfill gas power penetration on the continent. It concludes by proposing guidelines to enable policymakers to recognize political and market constraints and incorporate potential solutions to these constraints into future policies.
  • Shifts in the energy workforce

    McKennie, Caitlin; Bazilian, Morgan D.; Handler, Bradley P.; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-09-06)
    The recent passage of the Inflation Reduction Act heralds an unprecedented era of climate investment for the U.S. Such investment brings with it the promise of new jobs across the clean energy landscape. For rural communities that have historically depended on fossil fuel development or use, however, included several in Colorado, the outlook is at least more complicated. Nearer term, commitments in CO to close down coal plants threaten a number of jobs in specific communities. And longer term, the weaning off of oil use points to declines in employment in that sector as well.
  • A view from the ground along the proposed Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) route

    Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-07-15)
    The proposed Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) has been conceived to transport gas from the Niger delta in Nigeria, across Niger and Algeria to supply Europe as it reduces its dependence on Russian gas while transitioning to lower carbon energy. Natural gas is a key component of several European countries' total energy consumption and the push to diversify the provenance of their gas supplies would reduce market risks associated with the proposed TSGP. Technical risks to the pipeline's success can also be substantially mitigated through engineering studies before the final investment decision is made. This commentary makes the case that beyond these latter risk categories, there would be residual risks to the TSGP's success that are non-market and nontechnical in nature. It then highlights some of these residual risks and proposes potential mitigation strategies.
  • Clearing the non-technical hurdles for CCS

    Bowser, Brooke; Handler, Bradley P.; Littlefield, Anna; Bazilian, Morgan D.; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-07-15)
    The oil and gas industry began injecting carbon dioxide into the ground in the 1970s as a technique to produce more oil (now called enhanced oil recovery), but today there is a renewed interest in CO2 injection for carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects — this time as a way to address climate change. Despite CCS technology itself being decades-old, persistent regulatory and liability questions paired with limited economic viability threaten development, even as the industry appears to be gathering momentum for large-scale growth.
  • Interest group power and the passage of Nigeria's Petroleum Industry Act (PIA): a multiple streams approach

    Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-08-04)
    After about 20 years of slow and staggered progress, Nigeria's Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) was ratified into law in 2021 and became the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA). This paper examines the dynamic political context in which the bill finally came into being through the lens of the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF). It identifies the key interest groups in the context of the bill's passage and describes the changes in the preference enforcement power of these groups that opened the way for the passage of the bill. Finally, it sheds light on the PIA's survival prospects after the 2023 presidential elections based on the backgrounds of the top candidates and their likely policy inclinations.
  • The dimming of lights in Afghanistan 2022 versus 2021

    Elvidge, Christopher; Ghosh, Tilottama; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. Earth Observation Group (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-06-17)
    A color composite image is used to identify Afghanistan citiies or towns where the lighting has dimmed during the first part of 2022 relative to a year ago. An analysis has been performed with the monthly radiances from 2021 and 2022 to identify locations in Afghanistan where electric power supplies are currently reduced as compared to conditions prior to the US withdrawal in August 2021.
  • Carbon capture utilization and storage in the new Inflation Reduction Act

    Littlefield, Anna; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-08-05)
    The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 should offer an immense boost to the carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) industry. With $369 billion allocated to energy security and climate change, the expectation is to "lower energy costs, increase cleaner energy production, and reduce carbon emissions by roughly 40% by 2030". These emission reduction targets will be met in part through enhancing and expanding existing incentives.
  • A one-two punch: joint effects of natural gas abundance and renewables on coalfired power plants

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryPayne Institute for Earth Resources, 2015-11)
    Since 2007, coal-fired electricity generation in the U.S. has declined by a stunning 25%. At the same time, natural gas-fired generation and wind generation have dramatically increased due to technological advances and policy interventions.

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