Now showing items 21-40 of 125

    • Niger, uranium, and the coup d'etat

      Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-09-01)
      Payne Institute ESG Researcher Baba Freeman writes about how the recent coup d'etat in Niger, a key supplier of uranium, has created some level of anxiety in the market and brought forward new questions for stakeholders across the industry and the West African sub-region. The event calls for a fresh look at the potential market impact and the way forward to resolving the current disputation in a manner that preserves Niger's development agenda, minimizes political risk to investors, and aids the emergence of a more resilient global critical minerals supply chain.
    • Proposed West Africa-Europe gas pipelines will fail without a radical shift in thinking

      Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-08-29)
      Payne Institute ESG Researcher Baba Freeman writes about how the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022 injected a renewed urgency into Western European countries' energy security concerns and led to an increase in demand for non-Russian sources of oil and gas. Consequently, Europe is expected to take a larger share of future LNG supplies even as greenfield pipeline projects are being conceived to supply West African gas to Western Europe. These projects include the Trans-Sahara Gas Pipeline (TSGP) and the Nigeria-Morocco Gas Pipeline (NMGP) but may not be able to adequately meet these projects' future obligations.
    • Investors in African mining ventures must refresh their risk management processes

      Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-08-17)
      Payne Institute Research Associate Baba Freeman writes about how the frequency of coup d'etats in the Sahel region is troubling and calls for mining investors to refresh their political risk assessment processes. The recent trend of militarization must surely prod investors to further assess the likelihood and possible impact of military interventions and incorporate key takeaways from current events into their risk management tools and processes. While the risk of a total loss of capital due to outright warfare can be assessed deterministically, subjective measures of political instability can substantially impact the "country risk" premium that mining investors must pay over and above the risk-free cost of capital.
    • Renewable energy in Africa: Kenya's success and its possible implementation in Angola

      Lima, Yara Alexandra; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-07-06)
      Payne Institute student researcher Yara Alexandra Lima writes about how Africa represents some of the world's largest reserves of both renewable and non-renewable energy sources, however, it accounts for half of the world's power deficit. Many African countries are working towards developing their energy sector and, consequently, improving their economic, social, and political framework. This paper will discuss the key strategies employed by Kenya to develop its energy sector and increase its electrification rate, and the possibility of applying these policies in other African countries, namely Angola.
    • Rising costs' impact on renewable power generation

      Handler, Bradley P.; Shandy, Mason; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-06-27)
      Payne Institute Program Manager Brad Handler and student researcher Mason Shandy write about how the inflationary pressures that have gripped the global economy over the last 18 months, along with central banks' efforts to lessen them, are weighing on the economics of building new power generation. Despite recent evidence of some moderation in these inflationary pressures, it is reasonable to expect that they will persist for some time.  These higher costs disproportionately impact development of variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar, and in emerging market (EM) economies.
    • Colorado (CDPHE/AQD) rule making verifying methane emissions reporting

      Crompton, James; Manful-Sam, Ebenezer; Lindsey, Wyatt; Nichilo, Pierluigi; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-06-05)
      Payne Institute Faculty Fellow Jim Crompton, and Student Researchers Ebenezer Manful-Sam, Wyatt Lindsay and Pierluigi Nichilo write about how reducing greenhouse gases, especially methane emissions, from oil and gas production activities is one of the major themes of regulatory actions both at state, provincial and federal levels in North America as part of society's path for addressing climate change. One of the biggest barriers for methane reduction is not financial or technology, but rather a lack of rigorous and transparent data. In 2021, Colorado's Air Quality Control Commission adopted a rule that limits how much greenhouse gas can be emitted per barrel of oil and gas produced.
    • Ambitious EPA rules to face stark permitting reality

      Littlefield, Anna; Handler, Bradley P.; Bazilian, Morgan; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-05-17)
      Payne Institute Program Managers Anna Littlefield and Brad Handler, and Director Morgan Bazilian write about how in early May EPA proposed major new carbon emissions standards for coal and many gas-fired electric power plants. Prominent among the options is carbon capture and storage (CCS)—this represents a unique and significant possibility for the technology. The proposal highlights the pressing need to accelerate permitting of CO2 pipelines and injection wells.
    • China's consolidation of rare earth elements sector

      Htun, Tinzar; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-05-01)
      Payne Institute student researcher Tinzar Htun writes about how today China is the biggest global supplier of rare earth elements (REEs), accounting for around 70 percent of global mine production (1.2 million tons) in 2022. More importantly, China holds the dominant role in the downstream process of REE, separating and processing. The partial shutdown of the Lynas facility in Malaysia will grant China near-exclusive control over the production and distribution of REEs in the global market.
    • Applying post-quantum cryptography – survey and application of machine learning

      Osborne, Mack; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-04-26)
      Payne Institute student researcher Mack Osborne writes about how quantum computing poses a considerable threat in the world of cyber security. Policy makers are largely unprepared for a post-quantum world, significantly due to a lack of understanding and awareness. The goal of this paper is to improve understanding and provide a new and effective way to analyze post-quantum cryptography, for researchers and security engineers alike.
    • The mining boom is coming, but where can their workers live?

      McKennie, Caitlin; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-04-28)
      Payne Institute Research Associate Caitlin McKennie writes about how building out a robust talent pipeline for the mining sector through providing quality jobs to workers and advancement opportunities (i.e., training, upskilling, and next skilling efforts) will be a central factor for ramping up domestic critical mineral production and strengthening U.S. energy security. Yet, the labor force associated with nonfuel mineral mining in the U.S. has remained roughly stagnate over the last five years, and aligns with new statistics coming from employers.
    • Critical mineral mining and sustainable development in Africa

      Abanga Abugnaba, Mama Nissi; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-04-10)
      Payne Institute student researcher Mama Nissi Abanga Abugnaba writes about how as a continent with abundant natural resources, such as large reserves of vital minerals, Africa could play a critical role in facilitating the energy transition. This will be possible through a just energy transition that supports the retention of jobs, social aid for affected workers, upskilling of current employees, environmental restoration, and the development of local businesses. April 10, 2023.
    • Burning landfill in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan detected by VIIRS Nightfire

      Elvidge, Christopher; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy. Earth Observation Group (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-04-13)
      Payne Institute Earth Observation Group Director Christopher Elvidge writes about a landfill burning in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan as seen through the VIIRS Nightfire satellite imaging systems as part of their global monitoring program.
    • The regulation of CO₂ pipelines and ensuring public safety

      Siregar, Dwi Nuraini; Littlefield, Anna; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-03-15)
      The 45Q tax credit is anticipated to play an important role in accelerating the expansion of the CO₂ pipeline network in the United States by providing a financial incentive for businesses to invest in carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies and supporting infrastructure. The Inflation Reduction Act's amplification of this credit has already increased the number of CCUS projects. This activity, in addition to continuing demand for CO₂ for oil and gas operations, will require an expansion of the US CO₂ pipeline network. This expansion has raised questions and concerns among landowners, project stakeholders and the public regarding the safety of these pipelines and to what extent regulations should be consistent with or more stringent than those for the more abundant natural gas pipelines.
    • Securing mineral supply: backwards vertical integration for technology companies

      Saldana-Gaona, Christian; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-03-09)
      The demand for minerals has increased with the growing production of standard technologies, such as EV car batteries, wind turbines, and solar panels. However, major mining companies need help to satisfy the demand at the current rate, leading to inconsistent and expensive supply chains and environmental and geopolitical concerns. Technology companies should consider backward vertical integration strategies to mitigate against risks associated with supply chain issues, which would merge upstream processes essential to companies' value chains. By doing so, they can mitigate the mine's health, safety, and ecological impacts by employing the latest mining technologies.
    • Addressing the need for accurate and comparable greenhouse gas data: the COMET framework

      Calderon, Jordan Lee; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-03-02)
      The Coalition on Materials Emissions Transparency (COMET) began as a collaboration between the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), RMI (formerly known as the Rocky Mountain Institute), and the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN Climate Change). Its objective is to advance accurate and transparent greenhouse gas accounting through a harmonized set of principles, standards, and reporting requirements.
    • VIIRS day/night band power outage analysis for the February 6, 2023 earthquake in Turkey and Syria

      Ghosh, Tilottama; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-02-16)
      On February 6, 2023, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck at a depth of about 11 miles (17.9 km) in Gaziantep province in Turkey (https://www.worldvision.org/disaster-relief-news-stories/2023-turkey-and-syria-earthquake-faqs). At least 120 aftershocks have been felt around the region, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). At least 41,000 people have lost their lives till date (February 15th, 2023) and the number continues to rise. The natural disaster has aggravated the preexisting humanitarian need in the region as many Syrian refugees are concentrated in the 10 affected provinces of southern Turkey, and Syria, and have been already suffering from over a decade of civil war.
    • Turning wastes to rare value

      Hassan, Al Hassan; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-02-16)
      There remain considerable uncertainties surrounding critical mineral supply chains, and their relationship to energy transitions and energy security. There is clear evidence that they will play an increasing role, but the pathways to the future are unclear. As we strive for answers, one clear area to look is in recycling and circular economy concepts.
    • Ukraine power outages viewed from the NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer suite at night

      Elvidge, Christopher; Ghosh, Tilottama; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Mt. Castle, Elijah; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-01-06)
      As the Russia-Ukraine war approaches the 1 year mark the electrical grid in Ukraine has taken devastating damage. Russia has hit more than 200 targets in the electrical infrastructure. This has left millions of Ukrainian citizens without power in the cold winter months. In the early days of the war Russia captured the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant, which is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe. Russia has now militarized the facility installing several Grad rocket launchers around the dry storage for spent nuclear fuel. Protective structures were erected to defend the launchers, but these structures violate international nuclear and radiation safety regulations.
    • Policy guidelines for accelerating the energy transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from the mobile telecoms sector

      Freeman, Baba; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2023-01-26)
      Sub-Saharan Africa faces immense challenges in its bid to attract capital to develop its energy resources and grow its economy. Relative to the pace of market penetration of cell phone services in the recent past, the growth in the share of the population with access to electricity has been rather dismal. The comparisons between both sectors are not new and have been made repeatedly over the years. This commentary recognizes that there are substantial differences between both sectors that make direct comparisons and a transfer of policy lessons difficult. It then identifies some key enablers of cellular telephony growth in Africa that can be applied to the electric power sector and refashions them into broad policy guidelines for boosting the pace of the energy transition on the subcontinent.
    • Developing hydrogen and carbon capture and storage projects in the state of Colorado

      Cheng Siew, Chiang; Littlefield, Anna; Colorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy (Colorado School of Mines. Arthur Lakes LibraryColorado School of Mines. Payne Institute for Public Policy, 2022-12-09)
      Over the past two years, both the hydrogen and carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) industries have gained momentum in the US. Project development in these industries has been rapidly accelerating with the growing financial incentives from policymakers for the commercial deployment of these projects. The signing of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, in November of 2021 marked the US Department of Energy's largest single investment in carbon management, along with significant investments funding clean hydrogen development.